PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, PHYSICAL CAPACITY AND SELF-RATED HEALTH IN ELDERLY WOMEN
Jurgita Naujokaitė, Miglė Bacevičienė, Sandra Kilikevičienė, Vida Janina Česnaitienė Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas
Purpose of the research – to assess the relations between physical activity, physical capacity and self-rated health in elderly women.
Research methods. The study was carried out in Lithuanian Sports University in 2016–2017. Twentythree volunteers physically active women from Kaunas city were involved in the study. The average age of the study participants was 66.0 ± 8.1 years. All the participants were free from any chronic cardiovascular, respiratory and muscle-bone-joints disease. All study participants filled in the questionnaire to determine the level of physical activity and performed tests to assess physical capacity. Aerobic capacity was assessed using 2-minute walk test. Hand static muscle strength was determined by dynamometry and body balance test was performed counting the times of body balance loss during 30 seconds. Anthropometric indicators such as body mass index, ratio of body fat, skin folds and blood pressure were measured. Objectification of physical activity was performed by accelerometry method. Accelerometer was placed on the waist and one week’s physical activity was assessed recording the number of steps and energy expenditures. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS statistical software.
Results. The average of steps made during 1 week was 54,078.5 ± 17,625.7. Mean energy expenditures during 1 week was also sufficient (2916.4 ± 880.2 kcal and 2289 ± 775.1 METs). Physical activity score assessed by questionnaire method was 5.0 ± 1.2. Very strong statistical correlation was found between steps maid during 1 week and energy expenditures measured in kcals and METs (r = .9). Also strong statistical correlation was detected between body mass index and body fat (r = .9). Inverse statistically significant correlation was detected between body mass index and number of steps maid during 1 week (r = -.7). No significant correlations were found between physical activity and physical capacity indicators. Higher physical activity was correlated with better self-rated health (r = .6). Better aerobic physical capacity was significantly associated with higher muscle strength, better body balance and with higher blood pressure and higher rest heart rate.
Conclusion. Physical activity had positive impact on older women’s body composition whereas better aerobic physical capacity was associated with higher muscle strength and higher blood pressure.