IS THE INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE LONG FORM (IPAQ) A RELIABLE MEASURE OF FREE-LIVING SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER PERSONS? COMPARISONS WITH ACCELEROMETER MEASURES
Ryan D.1, Wullems J. A.1, Stebbings G.1, Morse C. I.1, Sewart C. E.2, Onambele-Pearson G.1
1Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom, 2Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
Relevance of the research. In recent years, accurate quantification of free-living sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) has moved towards objective measurement methods (Van Dyck et al., 2003). Although, deemed a more accurate determination of lifestyle patterns, objective measures can be costly in large epidemiological studies. Self-report data collection methods are useful as they can be widely distributed, generate large data sets and are relatively more cost effective. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used worldwide (Craig et al., 2005), however, its application in persons older than 69 years of age, is limited (Van Holle et al., 2015).
The object of the research was to compare the results of the IPAQ to accelerometer measures of free-living lifestyle patterns. The hypothesis was that both measures would agree in determining SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in older people. The aim was to provide a reliable record of the degree of sedentarism and PA in older persons.
Research methods and organization. 44 older participants (74.1 ± 6.1 yrs, 57 % female) wore a thigh-mounted (anterior aspect, at 50 % of greater trochanter to femoral condyle distance) triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv Original, Activinsights Ltd, Kimbolton, UK), for seven consecutive free-living days. Residual G (G), adapted from Onambele et al. (2006) was the chosen accelerometer output for the study. SB was identified from the accelerometer output using 10 s epoch axis orientation and a 1.50 Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET; where 1 MET = resting metabolic rate) cut-off point (0.057 G). MVPA was identified using a 3.00 MET cut-off point (0.216 G). Sleeping time was identified using a sleep diary. After seven days, 39 participants (48 % female), successfully, completed the IPAQ Long Form (English) (IPAQ Research Committee, 2002). Association between IPAQ and accelerometer measures of SB and MVPA were performed using a Spearman rho. Any sex differences were compared with independent samples t-tests. Significance was set at a p value of 0.05. Data presented as Mean ± SD.
Results and discussion. For MVPA (total hours over seven days), no association (r = 0.07; p = 0.84,) between IPAQ (45.5 ± 34.5 hrs) and accelerometer (19.3 ± 7.0 hrs) measures was present. For SB (mean hours per 24 h day), a moderate association (r = 0.34, p = 0.03) between IPAQ (5.5 ± 2.2 hrs) and accelerometer (9.2 ± 2.2 hrs) measures was found. It is notable, no sex differences were found in IPAQ or accelerometer assessed lifestyle patterns (p > 0.05).
Conclusions. The use of IPAQ with older participants does not appear to reflect objective measures of free-living lifestyle patterns as the IPAQ underestimates SB and overestimates MVPA. Thus, where possible, we would recommend the use of accelerometry to capture SB and/or PA.