EFFECTS OF NORDIC WALKING ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL AND FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY IN OLDER WOMEN WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. DATA FROM PILOT STUDY
Capkauskiene S.1, Vizbaraite D.1, Bagdoniene E.1, Kadusevicius E.2
1Lithuanian Sports University, Lithuania, 2Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Lithuania
Relevance of the research. Increasingly growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the leading cause of mortality, long-term disability as well as long-term loss of working capacity in the XXI century (American Diabetes Association, 2010). The cause of T2DM is a progressive insulin resistance and relative lack of insulin leading to hyperglycaemia (Cohen et al., 2006). Most commonly, the disease is associated with middle or older age and sedentary lifestyle.
Persons suffering from T2DM, are recommended for moderate intensity physical activity at least for 150 minutes a week (Sigal et al., 2004). Daily exercising is a cornerstone of diabetes control. Regular physical activity has proved to have a beneficial effect on reduced mortality and prevention of cardiovascular diseases independently of diabetic status (Cauza et al., 2005; Marcus et al., 2008; Sigal, Kenny, 2010). Walking on regular basis is an important prevention for persons who have impaired glucose tolerance (Tuomilehto et al., 2001; Goodwin, 2010; Chudyk, Petrella, 2011). Physical activity not only prevents obesity and associated diseases in diabetic patients, but also it has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases; it also improves sensitivity to insulin, decreases insulin resistance, maintains blood pressure, improves mood and vitality (Helmrich et al., 1994; Canadian Diabetes Association, 2003; Zinman et al., 2004; Sigal et al., 2007). Regular exercises or moderate intensity physical activity may prevent complications and improve the quality of life as well as increase life expectancy (Wei et al., 2000). We propose that long-term aerobic exercise programme ‒ Nordic walking, will improve functional capacity and glycemic control in older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The object of the research is the effect of Nordic walking and the aim was to assess the effects of Nordic walking on glycemic control and functional capacity in older persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Research methods and organization. Long-term exercise programme, which duration was 12-weeks, consisted of moderate-intensity Nordic walking 3 times a week, outside, in the afternoon, 60 minutes duration, walking 5000 steps. We assessed body weight (kg), body mass index (BMI), the haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level, and cardiovascular functional capacity before and after 12-weeks aerobic exercises programme. Capillary blood glucose concentration, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before and after each workout.
Results and discussion. Body weight (p < 0.001), BMI (p < 0.001), HbA1c level (p < 0.05), SBP (p < 0.001) and HR (p < 0.001) significantly decreased after long-term aerobic exercise programme. Functional capacity (p < 0.05) increased and glycemic control (p < 0.001) improved for all diabetic women after 12-weeks duration Nordic walking programme. The American Diabetes Association (2010) recommends regular moderate intensity exercise between 40 % and 60 % VO2max for 150 minutes a week spread out at least 3 times during the week. Regular activity has been shown to improve insulin resistance for 72 hours after the last session. Our proposed hypothesis that a dosed long-term aerobic exercises improved diabetic control in older people with type 2 diabetes, was confirmed.
Conclusions. Body weight, body mass index, haemoglobin A1c level, systolic blood pressure and heart rate significantly decreased, while walking distance increased and glycemic control significantly improved after long-term aerobic exercise programme in older women having type 2 diabetes mellitus.