INTERDISCIPLINARY MULTI-LABORATORY RESEARCH
Some interdisciplinary research areas require measurements from several laboratories. A typical area of interdisciplinary research is Gerontology. A research study being budgeted by the Office for Senior Citizens in the Prime Minister’s Office requires comprehensive physical fitness tests for the elderly in the Physiology Lab (ergometric tests for maximal oxygen uptake – VO2max), the Molecular Biology Lab (urine tests from which certain proteins are extracted for evaluating oxidative stress), the Biomechanics Lab (evaluating strength in the upper and lower limbs), and other special equipment to meet womenobtained for this study (for testing postural stability). The tests are being conducted in three rounds: baseline tests, tests after the intervention, and follow-up tests half a year after completion of the study.
Ryan et al.
IS THE INTERNATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY QUESTIONNAIRE LONG FORM (IPAQ) A RELIABLE MEASURE OF FREE-LIVING SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER PERSONS? COMPARISONS WITH ACCELEROMETER MEASURES
Ryan D.1, Wullems J. A.1, Stebbings G.1, Morse C. I.1, Sewart C. E.2, Onambele-Pearson G.1
1Manchester Metropolitan University, United Kingdom, 2Liverpool John Moores University, United Kingdom
Relevance of the research. In recent years, accurate quantification of free-living sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) has moved towards objective measurement methods (Van Dyck et al., 2003). Although, deemed a more accurate determination of lifestyle patterns, objective measures can be costly in large epidemiological studies. Self-report data collection methods are useful as they can be widely distributed, generate large data sets and are relatively more cost effective. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) is used worldwide (Craig et al., 2005), however, its application in persons older than 69 years of age, is limited (Van Holle et al., 2015).
The object of the research was to compare the results of the IPAQ to accelerometer measures of free-living lifestyle patterns. The hypothesis was that both measures would agree in determining SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in older people. The aim was to provide a reliable record of the degree of sedentarism and PA in older persons.
Research methods and organization. 44 older participants (74.1 ± 6.1 yrs, 57 % female) wore a thigh-mounted (anterior aspect, at 50 % of greater trochanter to femoral condyle distance) triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv Original, Activinsights Ltd, Kimbolton, UK), for seven consecutive free-living days. Residual G (G), adapted from Onambele et al. (2006) was the chosen accelerometer output for the study. SB was identified from the accelerometer output using 10 s epoch axis orientation and a 1.50 Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET; where 1 MET = resting metabolic rate) cut-off point (0.057 G). MVPA was identified using a 3.00 MET cut-off point (0.216 G). Sleeping time was identified using a sleep diary. After seven days, 39 participants (48 % female), successfully, completed the IPAQ Long Form (English) (IPAQ Research Committee, 2002). Association between IPAQ and accelerometer measures of SB and MVPA were performed using a Spearman rho. Any sex differences were compared with independent samples t-tests. Significance was set at a pvalue of 0.05. Data presented as Mean ± SD.
Results and discussion.For MVPA (total hours over seven days), no association (r = 0.07; p = 0.84,) between IPAQ (45.5 ± 34.5 hrs)and accelerometer (19.3 ± 7.0 hrs) measures was present. For SB (mean hours per 24 h day), a moderate association (r = 0.34, p = 0.03) between IPAQ (5.5 ± 2.2 hrs) and accelerometer (9.2 ± 2.2 hrs) measures was found. It is notable, no sex differences were found in IPAQ or accelerometer assessed lifestyle patterns (p > 0.05).
- The use of IPAQ with older participants does not appear to reflect objective measures of free-living lifestyle patterns as the IPAQ underestimates SB and overestimates MVPA. Thus, where possible, we would recommend the use of accelerometry to capture SB and/or PA.
Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjostrom, M., Dauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E. et al. (2005). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 35 (8), 1381–1395.
IPAQ Research Committee. (2002). IPAQ long form (english). Retrieved 24th October 2014, https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/.
Onambele, G. L., Narici, M. V., Maganaris, C. N. (2006). Calf muscle-tendon properties and postural balance in old age. Journal of Applied Physiology, 100 (6), 2048‒2056.
Van Holle, V., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Deforche, B., Van Cauwenberg, J., Van Dyck, D. (2015). Assessment of physical activity in older Belgian adults: validity and reliability of an adapted interview version of the long International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L). BMC Public Health, 15 (1), 443.
Van Dyck, D., Cerin, E., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Hinckson, E., Reis, R. S., Davey, R. et al. (2003). International study of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with body mass index and obesity: IPEN adult study. International Journal of Obesity, 39 (2), 199‒207.