MOBILITY-RELATED ASSISTED LIVING SOLUTIONS: CONTRIBUTIONS FROM HUMAN MOVEMENT SCIENCE
Michael Brach University of Münster, Germany
Introduction. Assisted living solutions (AAL) utilise technical knowledge to support maintaining independence, one of the most im-portant wishes of ageing or impaired individuals. This often includes mobility, i.e. the capability, opportunity and per-formance of changing body positions and of locomotion. This talk deals with needs and challenges in order to support the development and interoperability of related AAL technology.
Example 1: Implementing principles of modern exercise physiology into a “serious game” approach
Computer-animated games are ascribed a potential in motivating home-based exercise in order to support mobility. The development of such a combination of sport exercises and gaming – also called “exergame” – is reported.
- From a sport science point of view, three main tasks are identified and performed. First, a training target and physical exercises must be conceptualised, suitable for preventive training, for home-based execution and for integration into computer-animated games. Second, volume and intensity of the training have to be determined, including adaptations for different fitness levels and progression rules for continuous training. Third, criteria of movement quality should be defined for monitoring by technical sensors, recognising beginning and end of series and decision-making on changes of training configuration on different time scales.
- From a computer science point of view, Natural Interaction (NI) based on motion recognition and analysis and an adapted HAAT-model (Human Activity Assistive Technology Model) allow for real-time scaling of the exer-game’s difficulty to adjust to the user’s individual fitness level and thus keep motivation up.
- Data from a pilot study are presented. 19 players aged 60–93 (mean 76) years were offered to play the exergame for 7 days. 11 players (58 %) played 6 of 7 days. Score analysis shows that progression in the game (and thus in the exercises) took place.
Example 2: Using action theory and resource view for a generic mobility model in standardisation
DKE, the German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies of DIN and VDE, established an AAL standardisation roadmap. An application guide on mobility has been developed by a working group from transpor-tation science and technology, human movement science, telecommunication, building industry, computer science and electrical engineering.
- The needs analyses yielded the following requirements: (a) the individual need for support changes on different time scales, due to daily fitness, health or ageing processes, (b) the usage of assisted living (or conventional) utilities itself can modify the userʼs mobility in a good or harmful way, (c) a barrier (process interruption) between indoor and outdoor mobility can arise when devices and utilities have to be changed.
- The resulting mobility model combined action theory and a resource-based view is considered useful for identi-fying and discussing mobility aspects. Its main terms are (a) a situation, which comprises (b) a person with cer-tain internal resources (abilities and skills), facing (c) a task with requirements and affordances, embedded in (d) an environment with external resources. Using this specific language scheme, the terms distinguish mobility as (e) room for action.
Discussion Assisted Living System often includes movement of users and stakeholders. Human movement science offers useful theories and practical solutions for complex approaches.